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Nationalism Versus Liberalism: War and Finance in Europe

Said El Mansour Cherkaoui

🆕📈#OECD #inflation rises to 🔟.5⃣% in September 2022, with inflation pressures broadening beyond food and energy in most countries.

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Version Française: Nationalisme et Libéralisme: Guerre et Finance en Europe

Russia President considered the move of the NATO and European Union toward integrating Ukraine in their sphere of influence and members as the “Last Nail to Close the Cofin” on Russia while he is still alive not to mention the violations of the assurances given and the agreements signed concerning the advance of NATO towards the Russian border.


  • Russian forces are intensifying their attacks on Kyiv and western Ukraine as it prepares to shift focus to the eastern Donbas region. The New York Times says Russia’s strategy seems to involve “degrading” Ukraine’s capabilities across the country before renewing its offensive to the east. Meanwhile, Russia has warned the U.S. and NATO that they risk “unpredictable consequences” by continuing to arm Ukraine with “sensitive” weapons.
  • President Biden has approved an $800 million military aid package that would significantly upgrade Ukraine’s weapons systems.
  • A senior U.S. Defense official confirmed Ukraine’s claims that its missiles struck one of the most important warships in the Russian navy, causing it to sink. Moscow had said an accidental fire was responsible.
  • Russia appears close to capturing the southern port of Mariupol, which is largely in ruins after weeks of fighting.
  • European officials are drafting a phased-in ban on Russian oil imports.
  • Sen. Steve Daines of Montana and Rep. Victoria Spartz of Indiana on Thursday visited Kyiv and its environs, making them the first U.S. officials to visit since the start of the war.
  • The Biden administration is weighing whether to send a high-level official to Kyiv in the coming days, as a show of support for Ukraine.
  • US President Biden announced a ban on Russian oil and natural gas imports to the U.S. Tuesday, a move he said would deal a “powerful blow” to Moscow’s “war machine.” The U.S. receives less than 10% of its energy resources from Russia, but the decision is expected to rattle global energy markets and cause gas prices — already at record highs — to spike further.
  • The EU said it wants to cut Russian gas imports by two-thirds before the end of the year.
  • The U.K. announced plans to phase out imports of Russian oil by the end of the year.
  • Russia has become the most sanctioned country in the world.
  • The U.N. said Tuesday that some two million refugees have fled Ukraine following the Russian invasion — including 1 million children in less than two weeks — as a new effort to evacuate civilians from the city of Sumy took place.
  • The EU says up to 5 million people are expected to flee the war.
  • Russia had announced that trapped civilians could be evacuated — but only to Russia or its ally, Belarus. Ukrainian officials rejected the offer, calling it “immoral.”
  • A third round of talks Monday between Russia and Ukraine ended with “small progress” being made on a plan to evacuate civilians, reported Reuters.
  • Ukraine’s President Volodymyr Zelensky released a Facebook video in which he spoke from his office in Kyiv for the first time since the beginning of the war and said he was not in hiding.
  • The Ukrainian military said it shot down three Russian fighter jets and a cruise missile Monday.

Danyal Ikram (CPCM – DMCA – PG-RMI – PG-PMP, Agile Scrum)(He/Him) out of network 3rd+ Seasoned business development and planning strategic leader in B2B and B2C business environment by integrating design and process thinking to create value in both financial and operational efficiencies

NATO is what? Really. Despite of disapproval of National Security Council, NATO attacked on Iraq, Libya, Syria, Lebnon and 20 years of consistent bombardment on Afghans civilians. Please refresh my memory which one of these countries attacked first on NATO? Please visit these countries and see the huminatrian crises. Any person who has little sensitivity would not be able to stop tears.

International Women Day

There have been fabulous women throughout human history but the choices each and everyone makes remain in their thoughts and respects of their own humanity without excuses or because or how or because of what.

At this level it is the end justifies the means and it is the height of the capitalist and sub-capitalist policy of aggression against the peoples to impose this liberal will on them when these peoples do not even have a social structure, an entanglement of interests and a composition of rights similar to that which had accompanied the birth and development of Liberalism since Adam Smith and David Ricardo.

Even this original liberalism was kidnapped, held hostage by a universal elite who decides its fate, its application and the kind of punishment to be applied to those who do not want to adhere to it or become puppets or even the flesh of the guns in other still rebellious or Islamic countries where “Terrorists” exist.

“Who sows Terror, reaps Terrorists”

Send us your opinion, your perspective and your position on the conflict between Russia and Ukraine and your perception of the direct or indirect role of NATO in the exacerbation or non-exacerbation of this fratricidal confrontation. if you want to stay anonymous, let us know.

Contact:

This war is not a one man affair, it is a national war of defense of a country surrounded by a revanchist ideology full of revenge which has never forgotten that Russia was the first country to become socialist and that it is the last country which is still identified in such a civilization from where their will to crush it at all costs economically and financially speaking.

This funny President of Ukraine, a lawyer who could not defend or defend himself in the courts of Ukraine, tried to become an actor and he succeeded with the financing and the help of the countries of the West of get this job by manipulating everyone, a puppet who is currently manipulating public opinion, all these photos of resistance date from before the outbreak of the conflict.

This war is not a one man affair, it is a national war of defense of a country surrounded by a revanchist ideology full of revenge which has never forgotten that Russia was the first country to become socialist and that it is the last country which is still identified in such a civilization from where their will to crush it at all costs economically and financially speaking.

This funny President of Ukraine, a lawyer who could not defend or defend himself in the courts of Ukraine, tried to become an actor and he succeeded with the financing and the help of the countries of the West of get this job by manipulating everyone, a puppet who is currently manipulating public opinion, all these photos of resistance date from before the outbreak of the conflict.



The Reasons for the Anger of the Ukrainian President


For the Sky, Nato Drops the Ball on Ukraine
Come Fly with Me and Over Me Nato to Protect me, No Sorry, the Sky belongs to Russia
This is your Ukrainian conflict
Who build the Nuclear Reactors in Ukraine

Russia is trying to recover the Nuclear Power Plants it had built in Ukraine which, according to some observers, are around fifteen nuclear reactors which produce electricity in order to force Ukraine to no longer have access to electrical and other energy and by reducing industrial production in the country.


The Reasons of the Russian Wrath
Ukraine conflict

The WEST: Ukraine

L’Ukraine request immediat intégration “without delay” into the EU (président)

European Commission:

We are strengthening our response to hold Russia and Belarus to account for their attack on Ukraine.

Our new sanctions will harm their war and propaganda machine and have an eroding impact on their economies.

We will also finance the purchase and delivery of weapons to Ukraine.


#StandWithUkraine

The EAST: Russia

Belarusian troops entered the Chernihiv region in northern Ukraine on Tuesday, Ukrainian authorities said

#UPDATE Russia will continue the offensive in Ukraine until its “goals are achieved”, Defence Minister Sergei Shoigu said Tuesday, almost a week into Moscow’s invasion

🇷🇺🇫🇷📞 In a phone call with President @EmmanuelMacron, President Vladimir #Putin emphasised that Ukraine settlement s possible in case of consideration for Russia’s legitimate security interests.

☝️ It was noted that Russia is open to negotiations

MFA Russia 🇷🇺@mfa_russia·49mRussia government organization📄

“Why the Ukraine Crisis Is the West’s Fault” article by John J. Mearsheimer (@ForeignAffairs, 2014).

💬 The US & its European allies share most of the responsibility for the crisis. The taproot of the trouble is NATO enlargement.


Conducive Causes for the Russsian Reaction

The Ukrainian President is described as self-centered and maniac, made by the interests of foreign and international groups sold Ukraine to the wrong clients and wrong side of the interests of Ukrainian regional and transborder Brother in culture and history that is Russia. He was a little lawyer unknown, defeated by others and rising to prominence through foreign intervention and propaganda to topple the democratically elected previous president and managed with their help and intelligence to evict all the guards that identify their traditions and history in their multi centuries relationship with Russia. 

He is profiled as a little actor and comedian without success in movies who found a new stage with a script prepared for him and customized with West European fabrics and weaving that was tailored by Technocrats and Elites parachuted and formed by the Western Fashionable Societies as their robots and Artificial Intelligence embedded in a traditional society with Russian roots and infiltrated in Ukraine as model of success and window show of Western European modernity and advancement to lure Ukrainian from their traditional ties with their Eastern neighbor and living customs.  

Globalization of Western Style and Alienation of Local Culture

An effect of demonstration with propaganda and marketing oriented strategy putting an emphasis on the Westernized Style of Freedom and Mass Consumption was carried out to impose an alculturation policy, neutralize local principles of solidarity and destroy regional share of same cultural identity.  Many former members of the Soviet Union have been the theater of such cultural clashes and strategic plays and invasions scripted toward crippling local and regional identities and instill global ways and means of consumption and behaviors.   The advance of technology was also in fact stimulated by such aims and objectives which was called globalization and liberalism at the level of economic principles and manifestation as well as change in the policy of countries who have adopted such reforms.  

These structural recommendations were based on the strategies imposed as conditionality by international financial institutions for the integration of developing countries in the international financial market.  The implementation of such liberal policies were the only way to access foreign funding and international credit lines or even to be listed in the Stock markets.   Such international capital was needed as investments for local, regional and national projects that responded to the needs to enhance attractiveness and build infrastructure to effectively respond to the demands of foreign investors and international conglomerates.

The nature of these global groups is not to have nationality in terms of belonging to a given country given that their vision and approach cover operations around the entire world.  With such ability to choose their own location around the world in accordance with their best interests, they have the luxury to request and impose the financing by local entities and states of all the improvements for the installation of their facilities and their factories in a given country.   These conditions are made in addition to incentives and other benefits they receive as rewards to finalize their choice including the control of the social movements and demands by the workers to keep the wages lower than those existing in the most advanced western economies of Europe, America and Japan that are now considered as their markets for selling products manufactured and assembled around the world.

Within such frame and context, it is not surprising that the first actions and sanctions taken by the European Commission and by the Washington Authorities were and continue to be decided at the level of finance.

The reason this article is entitled: Europe War and Finance

What goes around comes around


Reactions of the Western Leaders

‘This is a disasterous misbegotten venture by President Putin’ – Boris Johnson GB Prime Minister

Boris Johnson, the British Prime Minister was asked what his message to President Putin is after he said he is putting his nuclear arsenal on alert. Mr Johnson said: “I think that’s a distraction from the reality of what’s going on in Ukraine.

The British Prime Minister added that “Putin will fail” as he spoke to Ukrainians after a service at the Cathedral of the Holy Family in Mayfair, London, on Sunday night.

“He will not succeed in crushing Ukraine and we in the UK will do everything in our power to ensure that outcome.

“That is not just because it is right geo-strategically but because we need to stick up for freedom that that is clearly important,” he added.

US Ambassador to the UN has said President Vladimir Putin’s order to put Russia’s deterrence forces on high alert is unacceptable escalation

EU could supply fighter jets to Ukraine 

The European Union’s foreign policy chief suggested that the EU would even be willing to supply fighter jets to Ukraine.

“We are going to provide even fighting jets. We are not just talking ammunition, we are talking about more important arms to go to war,” Josep Borrell said after the meeting of EU foreign ministers. 

Ukraine agrees to hold talks with Russia at the Belarusian border

After a phone call with Belarusian leader Alexander Lukashenko on Sunday 2/27/2022, Ukrainian president Volodymyr Zelenskyy agreed to hold talks with Russia at the Belarus border, per AFP.

On Sunday 2/27/2022, Russian President Vladimir Putin has ordered the military to put its nuclear forces on the highest level of alert in response to what he called “aggressive statements” by NATO countries.


Turkey officially recognized this Sunday, February 27, 2022 “the state of war” between Russia and Ukraine. Under the Montreux Convention of 1936 , this recognition authorizes Turkey, to limit the access of vessels of the belligerents to go through the straits of the Dardanelles and the Bosphorus, which allow the passage from the Mediterranean Sea to the Black Sea, and vice versa. And it is Turkey that controls these strategic routes

An exception is included in the convention: if these ships return to their home port, in which case they have the right to cross the straits. But for the rest, the Turkish Minister of Foreign Affairs said that Ankara was going to “transparently implement all the provisions of the Montreux Convention”.

In the short term, such a measure would not significantly reduce the strike force of Russia, which had already reinforced its fleet in the Black Sea before attacking Ukraine. Symbolically, however, it would be the first time since the start of the war that Ankara has acted against Moscow, while Turkey, for example, refuses sanctions.

: War in Ukraine: Turkey condemns the Russian attack but remains cautious


At the Russia Step Door, NATO built Surrounding Walls

Source: https://news.gooya.com/2017/10/post-8529.php

Iskra – sparkle Ignited the Dry Hill – “Из искры возгорится пламя” Vladimir Lenin

There were a series of events that led to the annexation, two of the most important being the Revolution of Dignity and the Crimean Status Referendum.

After Viktor Yanukovych, the then Ukrainian president, refused to sign the European Union–Ukraine Association Agreement and a Free Trade Agreement with the EU, thereby signaling a tightening of ties with Russia and its allies like Belarus, large-scale protests (known as the Euromaidan) broke out in Ukraine in November 2013, demanding the impeachment of the president.

The protests escalated into violent clashes between the protestors and the state security forces in the capital city of Kyiv, which culminated in the overthrow of the Yanukovych regime in February 2014.

The interim government that was established after the revolution signed the Association Agreement, and even held snap elections in May.

These developments greatly worried President Putin, who later revealed for a Russian documentary film that the secret order for Russia’s annexation of Crimea was actually given right after a late night meeting that discussed at length the deposition of President Yanukovych.

We ended at about seven in the morning” and “when we were parting, I said to my colleagues: we must start working on returning Crimea to Russia,” AFP reported.

On the day that meeting ended (23 February 2014), pro-Russian demonstrations began in Sevastopol, the largest city in Crimea. Protesters demanded that the Crimean Parliament refuse to recognize the Ukrainian interim government, and that a “Russian city should have a Russian mayor.” The parliament, however, refused to give in to these demands, and clearly stated that Crimea will not be separated from Ukraine, and would follow the laws passed by the Ukrainian Parliament. By 27 February, in an act that President Putin described as necessary to protect Russians outside of Russia, special forces of the Russian Federation took control over the building that housed the Supreme Council of Crimea (SSC). Under immense pressure, the SSC voted to hold a referendum about the sovereign status of Crimea.

The referendum, held on 16 March 2014, which resulted in a 97 percent vote in favor of into the Russian Federation, was criticized internationally as being unfair and rigged. Following the results, the SCC declared Crimea to be independent of Ukraine, in what came to be known as the Republic of Crimea, which is a de facto federal subject of the Russian Federation. Internationally, however, Crimea is still recognized to be a part of Ukraine.

Russian President Putin and Ukraine

Not only Crimea, Donbas region seceded from Ukraine, which consists of the administrative divisions of Donetsk and Luhansk. Pro-Russia separatists demonstrated which has led to the creation of quasi republics, known as the Donetsk People’s Republic and the Luhansk People’s Republic.

Russia Nationalist Move

Putin’s nationalist motive is explained in his 5,000-word article titled On the Historical Unity of Russians and Ukrainians, in which he outlines why Russians and Ukrainians are “one people.” President Putin questioned the Ukrainian borders and use history to claim that Russia has been robbed of its historical land.

Ukraine’s incumbent president, Volodymyr Zelensky, subtly trolled Putin for the essay, saying that he is “envious that the president of such a great power can permit himself to spend so much time [writing] such a volume of detailed work”, as reported by Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, a US media organization focusing on Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

NATO Threat to Russia

Ukraine under President Zelensky has been inching closer and closer to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), with respect to both weapons procurement and its accession into the alliance that is supposed to keep a check on Russian expansionism in Europe.

Russian President Putin has been long demanding a guarantee from the US that Ukraine will not join NATO and has also asked Washington to “rule out any further eastward expansion of NATO and the deployment of weapons systems posing a threat to us in close proximity to Russia’s territory”, The New York Times reported.

The US, however, has categorically refused to provide such a guarantee, and has thrown its support behind Ukraine. The White House Press Secretary made that very clear when she said, “NATO member countries decide who is a member of NATO, not Russia. That is how the process has always worked and how it will proceed. I think it’s important to remember where the provocative action is coming from. It’s not the United States. It’s not Ukraine”, the report added.

A Ukraine allied to NATO is therefore agreed upon as a security threat to Russia in the foreign policy department of the latter, with policymakers believing that NATO troops in Ukraine will alter the military balance against Russia.

(Extracts and inputs from The Quint, The Washington Post, The Guardian, Reuters, The Economist, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, AFP, and The New York Times.)


Update and Current Situation in Ukraine

Russian forces continue their assault on Ukraine, with “heavy fighting” reported in a city outside of Kyiv. Ukrainian troops are blowing up bridges to slow the Russian incursion into the capital city, and they’re handing out assault rifles to civilians who want to defend the capital. Ukraine’s President Volodymyr Zelensky warned the nation of an “all-out attack” overnight and he stated, “We are all here, defending our independence.” The U.S., U.K. and European Union announced a new round of sanctions directly targeting Russian President Vladimir Putin and Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov.

  • The U.S. has asked Congress for roughly $6.4 billion in aid funding for Ukraine.
  • The 40,000-troop NATO Response Force has been activated for the first time and deployed to the alliance’s eastern flank as a defensive measure.
  • Hours after Russia signaled Friday it was willing to hold talks on the possibility of Ukraine becoming a “neutral” country, Putin urged the Ukrainian military to overthrow the government.
  • At least 130 Ukrainians have been killed so far in the conflict, and roughly 100,000 have been displaced, according to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.
  • During a phone call Friday, Chinese President Xi Jinping reportedly “urged” Putin to negotiate with Ukraine.
  • Russia responded to U.K. sanctions by banning British planes from flying to Russia or crossing its airspace.
  • Thousands of Russians took part in anti-war demonstrations across the country Thursday.
  • Economists and investors are making sense of the conflict here.


Financial Clash of West and East and Russia Clash in Ukraine

European Commission

We condemn in the strongest possible terms Russia’s unprecedented military aggression against Ukraine.

By its unprovoked and unjustified military actions, Russia is grossly violating international law and undermining European and global security and stability.

We deplore the loss of life and the human suffering.

We call on Russia to immediately cease the hostilities, withdraw its military from Ukraine and fully respect Ukraine’s territorial integrity, sovereignty and independence.

Such use of force and coercion has no place in the 21st century. 

The EU stands firmly by Ukraine and its people as they face this unparalleled crisis.

The EU leaders will meet later today. President Michel of the European Council has urgently convened an extraordinary meeting of the European Council to discuss the crisis and further restrictive measures.

These will impose massive and severe consequences on Russia for its actions.

President von der Leyen and High Representative Borrell will outline a further sanctions package being finalized by the European Commission and the EEAS in close coordination with partners.

The Council will adopt them swiftly

The EU will continue to provide strong political, financial and humanitarian assistance to Ukraine and its people.

Massive and targeted sanctions agreed by EU leaders will have severe consequences for Russia. 
 
These sanctions cover: 
 
⛔️ The financial sector 
We target 70% of the Russian banking market and key state-owned enterprises, including in the defence sector. 
 
⛔️ The energy and transport sectors 
Export ban will hit the oil sector by making it impossible for Russia to modernise its refineries. 
 
⛔️ A ban on the export of aircraft spare parts 
It will affect the key sector of the Russian economy and the country’s connectivity. Three-quarters of Russia’s current commercial aircraft fleet was built in the European Union, the US and Canada. And therefore they are massively dependent on it. 
 
⛔️ Access to important technology 
It will affect Russia’s access to key technologies it needs to build a prosperous future – such as semiconductors or advanced technologies. 
 
⛔️ Visa policy 
Diplomats and related groups, as well as business people, will no longer have privileged access to the European Union.

Joint Statement on Further Restrictive Economic Measures [Extract]

Big bomb of money hundred dollar bills with a burning wick. Little time before the explosion. The concept of financial threat and use against opposing countries

Specifically, we commit to undertake the following measures:

  • First, we commit to ensuring that selected Russian banks are removed from the SWIFT messaging system. This will ensure that these banks are disconnected from the international financial system and harm their ability to operate globally.
  • Second, we commit to imposing restrictive measures that will prevent the Russian Central Bank from deploying its international reserves in ways that undermine the impact of our sanctions.
  • Third, we commit to acting against the people and entities who facilitate the war in Ukraine and the harmful activities of the Russian government. Specifically, we commit to taking measures to limit the sale of citizenship—so called golden passports—that let wealthy Russians connected to the Russian government become citizens of our countries and gain access to our financial systems.
  • Fourth, we commit to launching this coming week a transatlantic task force that will ensure the effective implementation of our financial sanctions by identifying and freezing the assets of sanctioned individuals and companies that exist within our jurisdictions. As a part of this effort we are committed to employing sanctions and other financial and enforcement measures on additional Russian officials and elites close to the Russian government, as well as their families, and their enablers to identify and freeze the assets they hold in our jurisdictions. We will also engage other governments and work to detect and disrupt the movement of ill-gotten gains, and to deny these individuals the ability to hide their assets in jurisdictions across the world.

Finally, we will step up or coordination against disinformation and other forms of hybrid warfare.

We stand with the Ukrainian people in this dark hour. Even beyond the measures we are announcing today, we are prepared to take further measures to hold Russia to account for its attack on Ukraine.


The new sanctions will finally go after the Russian oligarchs and their families to prevent them from obtaining the nationality of Western countries, the “golden passport”.


All of these countries (the United States, France, Germany, Britain, Canada, Italy and the European Commission) “have stressed their readiness to take further action if Russia does not halt to its attack on Ukraine and therefore on peace in Europe,” the spokesperson stressed.


Vladimir Poutine

In 5 minutes, Resolving Internal Corruption Issues by Combining Functions Threatening the Institutional Stability of the Russian State

How Vladimir Putin Sets the Clocks Back on State Responsibility
I leave you to draw your own conclusions and appreciate the value of what is the Reason of the State and the Quality of the Decision-makers of the State.
I don’t get tired of thinking about it and viewing this video.
Said El Mansour Cherkaoui, 2/26 // 2017

In 5 years later, Settlement of Regional Issues Threatening the Geo-Strategic Regional and Institutional Stability of the Russian State

Said El Mansour Cherkaoui 2/26/2022


🌎 Europe

L’Europe ne peut pas rester en dehors de la course technologique ni à l’écart des intégrations régionales en Afrique et en Asie, comme elle ne peut se permettre d’être figée par rapport à la concurrence ouverte entre la Chine et les Etats.  L’Europe ne peut plus avoir une attitude léthargique face à la montée de … Continue reading


🌎 Changing World Economy


🌎 New World Order and New Global Pax Americana


🌎 Asian- Pacific Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership


🌎 BRICS and the Building of Financial Great Wall


🌎 Search results for: China


🌎 AFRICA MOTHER OF CHALLENCES IN THE ORPHELIN WORLD OF CRISES


#development #banking #success #future #power #building #money #paris #economy #finances #gadgets #bank #sanctions #usa #europe #canada #africa #afrique #afriquedelouest

🌎 Eurozone: Money and Inflation

Monetarism, Central Bank and Developmentalism European Central Bank Updated 12/1/2021 KEY POINTS

Headline inflation on Friday came in at 4.1% for this month, according to preliminary data from Europe’sstatistics office Eurostat. This was the highest level since July 2008, according to Reuters data, and was ahead of a consensus forecast of 3.7%. September’s figure Continue reading “Eurozone: Money and Inflation”


What is your response on this? Council on Foreign Relations

  • A think tank La Crème de la Crème but republishing articles with sensation that reality, with my respect to all other eminent writers.
  • Sebastian Mallaby argues that, however much Russia and China may resent U.S. financial sanctions, the dollar’s reserve currency status is here to stay.

Dollar Dominance is here to stay?

  • What kind of arrogance is that?
  • Is this the new foreign policy motto?
  • Dominating what? Is Dollar dominating transactions or the transactions dominating Dollar?
  • Does the Dollar dominates as tender, lender and means of exchange or just a liquidity of reserves? 
  • Is the Dollar the denomination of foreign direct / indirect investments in Western Nations and with the marginalized “under-developed” and emerging economies? 
  • Is the Dollar the main currency defining policies of investments and capitalization of enterprises and public procurations and budgetary allocations everywhere?
  • Are loans made to the United States by foreign governments written and their interests is paid in dollars?
  • Saudi Arabia aramco wants to be paid for its Oil Exports by the Chinese Yuan while the European Central Bank will allow Hryvnia to be exchanged in Euro, here we go for the Ukrainian Money Laundered under the RED noses of Europeans sniffing high fumes of the energy prices and hit by the Stagflationary jabs, squeezes and knocks.

#china #investments #currency #dollar #euro #ruble #hryvnia #yuan #energy #opec #oil #money #bank #saudiarabia #china #russia #ukraine #usa #europe #africa #asia

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